Endnotes for Articles in Western States Jewish History Journal, Volume 51, Issue No. 1

Endnotes, Volume 51, Issue #1


“Is Your Blood Red, White and Blue?”  by Cantor Jonathan L. Friedmann

(1) Richard Striner, Woodrow Wilson and World War I: A Burden Too Great to Bear (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2014), 7. See also Kathleen M. Dalton, “Making Biographical Judgments: Was Theodore Roosevelt a Warmonger?,” OAH Magazine of History 13:3 (1999): 31-36.

(2) Jeanette Keith, Rich Man’s War, Poor Man’s Fight: Race, Class, and Power in the Rural South during the First World War (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004), 1-5.

(3) See Thomas Boghardt, The Zimmerman Telegram: Intelligence, Diplomacy, and American Entry into World War I (Annapolis MD: Navel Institute Press, 2012).

(4) American tradition called for rapid demobilization after every war to prevent large standing armies during peacetime. The size of the U.S. Navy did, however, increase. Striner, Woodrow Wilson and World War I, 7.

(5) Within a few months of the draft, some 10 million men across the country had registered. By the end of World War 1 (November 1918), some 24 million had registered under the Selective Service Draft. Of these, 2.8 million were drafted into service. See John Whiteclay Chambers II, “Selective Service,” in The United States in the First World War: An Encyclopedia, ed. Anne Cipriano Venzon (New York: Routledge, 2013), 540-542

(6) P.H. Carder, George F. Root, Civil War Songwriter: A Biography (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2008), 220, n. 86. Lincoln’s comment is reminiscent of an English aphorism: “Let who will make the laws of the people; but let me make their songs.” Quoted in Hugh Reginald Haweis, “Music, Emotions, and Morals (1893),” in The Value of Sacred Music: An Anthology of Essential Writings, 1801-1918, comp. Jonathan L. Friedmann (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2009), 100.

(7) “Is Your Blood Red White, and Blue?” appears in the Library of Congress’s Catologue of Copyright Entries, Part 3: Musical Compositions; New Series, Volume 12, Annual Index for 1917 (Washington, D.C.: Governmant Printing Office, 1917), 1443, 1493.

(8) Katherine F. Gauss, Golden Days in the Golden West (Salem, MA: Newcomb and Gauss, 1917).

(9) Glenn Watkins, Proof Through the Night: Music and the Great War (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2003), 263.

(10) Herman H. B. Meyer, comp. A Check List of the Literature and Other Material in the Library of Congress on the European War (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1918), 211-266.

(11) K. A. Wells, “Music as War Propaganda: Did Music Help Win the First World War?,” Parlor Songs Academy: Lessons in America’s Popular Music History (April 2004). http://parlorsongs.com/issues/2004-4/thismonth/feature.php

(12) Irving Berlin wrote “God Bless America” while stationed with the U.S. Army at Camp Upton in Yaphank, New York. He revised the song in 1938 in the run up to World War II.

(13) Mark W. van Wienen, Partisans and Poets: The Political Work of American Poetry in the Great War (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 150.

(14) Edward B. Marks, They All Sang: From Tony Pastor to Rudy Vallée (New York: Viking, 1934), 193.

(15) Wells, “Music as War Propaganda.”

(16) According to K. A. Wells: “Each of the CPI’s 19 domestic divisions centered its efforts on a particular type of propaganda, such as newspaper, academics, music, artists and filmmakers.” Wells, “Music as War Propaganda.”

(17) Gauss, Golden Days in the Golden West, 1.

(18) Gauss, Golden Days in the Golden West, 21.

(19) Gauss, Golden Days in the Golden West, 22.

(20) Gauss, Golden Days in the Golden West, 22.

(21) Gauss, Golden Days in the Golden West, 22.

(22) Gauss, Golden Days in the Golden West, 25.

(23) Gauss, Golden Days in the Golden West, 25.

(24) John Philip Sousa, Marching Along (autobiography), excerpted in Music in the USA: A Documentary Companion, ed. Judith Tick and Paul Beaudoin (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008), 283.

(25) Wm. R. Cushman and A. F. Frankenstein, “Is Your Blood Red, White and Blue?” (Los Angeles: Wm. R. Cushman, 1917).

(26) For full biographies of Frankenstein, see Ira L. Harris, “A Los Angeles Popular Music Director,” Western States Jewish Historical Quarterly 10:1 (1977): 62-67; and Jonathan L. Friedmann, A City Haphazard: Jewish Musicians in Los Angeles, 1887-1927 (Washington, D.C.: Academica, 2017), 59-72.

(27) Harris, “A Los Angeles Popular Music Director,” 62.

(28) Harris, “A Los Angeles Popular Music Director,” 62; “Frankenstein, Abraham Frankum (Franckum),” Composers-Classical-Music. <http://composers-classical-music.com/f/FrankensteinAbrahamF.htm>

(29) Frankenstein divorced Loretta without children in 1912, and married Gertrude Scott two years later. They were divorced in 1920, following a public court battle. Their two sons would later go by Frederick F. Hays and Albert F. Scott, presumably to hide their family name, which Boris Karloff made infamous with his portrayal of Frankenstein’s monster in 1931.

(30) Harris, “A Los Angeles Popular Music Director,” 62.

(31) F. B. Silverwood and A. F. Frankenstein, “I Love You, California” (San Francisco: Sherman, Clay & Co., 1913).

(32) News and Notes of California Libraries 9:1 (1914): 400-401.

(33) Nancy Capace, Encyclopedia of California, 8th ed. (St. Clair, MI: Somerset, 1999), 7-8.

(34) Senate Concurrent Resolution 29, adopted by the California Legislature and filed with the Secretary of State on April 26, 195

(35) Frankenstein became a Mason in 1895 at Bodley Lodge No. 1 in Quincy, Illinois, and joined Westgate Lodge No. 335 in Los Angeles in 1900. He affiliated with several other fraternal orders: Signet Chapter No. 57, R.A.M.; Golden West Commandery No. 43, Knights Templar; Los Angeles Lodge No. 99, B.P.O.E; and Al Malaikah Temple, A.A.O.N.M.S., for which he directed the Al Malaikah Shrine Band. He was also active in the Republican Club, known as “Teddy’s Terrors,” which aided the candidacy of Theodore Roosevelt for U.S. President. Harris, “A Los Angeles Popular Music Director,” 65-66; “Many Novices Cross Desert’s Hot Sands,” Los Angeles Herald, July 16, 1904; “Shriners Plan for Festivities,” Los Angeles Herald, December 11, 1904.

(36) Stuart Robson, The First World War (Harlow: Pearson, 2007), 103.

(37) Carol R. Byerly, “War Losses (USA),” International Encyclopedia of the First World War, October 8, 2004. https://encyclopedia.1914-1918-online.net/article/war_losses_usa

(38) David Ewen, All the Years of American Popular Music (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1977), 237.

Endnotes: Food & Faith, Part 1, by Oliver B. Pollack

(1) Oliver B. Pollak, “Nebraska Jewish Charitable Cookbooks, 1901-2002” in Food and Judaism, Leonard J. Greenspoon, ed. (Omaha: Creighton University Press, 2005), 133-48.

(2)Lynne Ireland, “The Compiled Cookbook as Foodways Autobiography,” 40 Western Folklore (1981):106-14. The Oxford English Dictionary shows “foodways,” used as early as 1941, referring to cultural eating habits, traditional and innovative patterns, the way we eat and what we eat.

(3) Grocery store competition creates a volatile market; A & P, Shavers, Safeway, Albertsons, Aldi, No Frills, Cub, Bakers, Hy-Vee, Fair Way, Whole Foods, Trader Joes, Wild Oats, Food City, Food for Less, Bag and Save, Target, Walmart, Sams, Costco, Fresh Thyme, Natural Foods, are some of the food stores that have graced Omaha over the last half century.

(4) Sometimes the planner overestimated the demand as in the case of the 5,000 volume press run ordered for the 1974 NCJW Council Cooks. Many volumes are still in their original packing cases. Conversation with Debbie Friedman, March 2016.

(5) Roberta Saltzman Email to the author, August 19, 2013.

(6) “Entertained at the Club,” Omaha World-Herald, October 26, 1898, p. 2. (on line).

(7) “Dedicated to Pleasure,” Omaha World-Herald, November 8, 1891. Carole Gendler, “The Jews of Omaha: The First Sixty Years,” Masters Thesis, University of Omaha, 1968, 58-60.

(8) See Charles E. Real, “Ethel Katz Levenson Edgar – A Daughter of Zion,” Memories of the Jewish Midwest, 9 Spring 1994, 1-7.

(9) Barbara Kirshenblatt Gimlett “Food and Drink” in Gershon David Hundert, ed, The YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008), 1:529-38.

(10) Oliver B. Pollak, B’nai B’rith

(11) Regina Frishwasser, 1945

(12) See Michael Popek, Forgotten Bookmarks (New York: Perigree, 2011).

(13) Roberta Saltzman Forward article

(14) “Judaism 101: Jewish Cooking,” http://www.jewfaq.org/food.htm, accessed January 31, 2014. Gefilte fish is the first food that Mimi Sheraton identifies in From My Mother’s Kitchen, Recipes and Reminiscences (New York: Harper Collins, 1991, revised edition, first published 1979), 1.

(15) Leo Rosten, The Joys of Yiddish (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1968), 126-27.

(16) Kirshenblatt-Gimblett, op. cit. See also Leah Koenig, “Jewish Dishes We Miss,” Forward.com, March 1, 2011 where she lists Schmaltz, Gribenes, Schav, Tongue, Mamaliga, Russel, Eyerlekh, Belly Lox, P’tcha and Aranygaluska.

(17) The literature is gathered in Margaret Cook, America’s Charitable Cooks: A Bibliography of Fund-Raising Cook Books Published in the United States (1861-1915) (Kent, Ohio: 1971);  Elizabeth Driver, Culinary Landmarks: A Bibliography of Canadian Cookbooks, 1825-1949 (University of Toronto Press, 2008); and on the internet at the New York Public Library, and  “Feeding America: The Historical American Cookbook Project,” Michigan State University digtal.lib.msu.edu/projects/cookbooks.

Back to Table Of Contents, Western States Jewish History, Vol 51, Issue #1